Themen > Kommunikation > Crowd Management Planning

International Crowd Management Conference
Reno, Nevada

November 11, 2002

Crowd Management Planning

presented by:
Larry B. Perkins, CCP
RBC Center
Raleigh, NC


Crowd Engineering Model:

*  Risk Management Components Section "A"
*  Shaping Crowd Behavior Section "B"
*  Developing an Event Plan Section "C"
*  The Four Critical Periods for Injures and Death Section "D"
*  Design Training for Crowd Managers Section "E"
*  Facility/Event use Policies & Procedure Section "F"
*  Action Plan Section "G"


Provide "structure" to Crowd Management Planning for the protection of life and property

Manage Crowds, not control

*  Duty of Care 
*  Breach of Duty
*  Actual Cause
*  Proximate Cause
*  Damages

Focus on Duty of Care

Risk Management Components – Section A

*  Risk avoidance, reduction, transfer and assumption
*  Emergency Evacuation Procedures
*  Policies and Procedures
*  Crisis Management
*  Life Safety Evaluations conducted at least annually or earlier upon facility
*  Bomb Threat Procedures
*  Day of Event Cancellation Procedures
*  Alcohol Management
*  SSTF "Best Practice"
*  Safety Program
*  Emergency Evacuation Procedures & Drills
*  Mutual Aide Agreements
*  Facility Maintenance Program
*  Crowd Management
*  Crowd Control Procedures
*  Emergency Vendor Service Agreement (supplies & parts)
*  Medical and Hospital Services
*  Public Relations (reputation & image)
*  Event Cleaning Services
*  Annual Maintenance Program
*  Training Program; Annual In-Service and ongoing Training
*  Facility & Property Usage Rules and Regulations
*  Air Space Regulations
*  Labor Relations
*  Operating Procedures
*  Rental Agreements
*  Annual Life Safety Evaluation
*  Waste Management & Sanitation Program

Shaping Crowd Behavior – Section B

*  Time
*  Space
*  Energy
*  Information

Other Influences on Crowd Behavior

*  Crowd Situation
*  Public Setting
*  Group Involvement
*  One on One Communications Difficulty
*  Uninhibited Customers
*  No Standard of Behavior
*  Alcohol Consumption
*  Safety and Security Role

Developing an Event Plan – Section C

Effective Crowd Management Techniques

1. Investigate
*  Gather Information
*  Who's coming
*  Who's the promoter
*  What are our needs
*  What are their needs
*  Who will need to be involved

2. Analyze
*  Capacity to Put on the Event
*  Time of the Day, Day of Week, Month of Year
*  History of Event
*  Demographics
*  Expertise of Staff
*  Resources and Equipment
*  What's at Stake-Risks

3. Plan
*  Advance planning, testing of emergency planning, and swift response
*  Written Procedures
*  Chain of Command
*  Assess staffing levels
*  Assess Vulnerability
*  Identify Critical areas and operational components

4. Communicate
*  To the decision makers
*  To staff; meeting, pre-event briefings
*  To promoter
*  To neighbours
*  To community and emergency Services
*  To Highway and Road Authorities

5. Execute
*  Determine the Facility, Event and Staff Readiness
*  Put the in motion

6. Supervise
*  Monitor the crowd dynamics and the established disciples
*  Look for negative variances in the plan
*  Observe the Staff Execution

7. Adjust
*  Respond to those negative variables and take corrective measures to counteract those negative disciplines

8. Critique
*  Assess the plan applied and set new disciples where needed.

The Four Critical Periods for Injures and Death – Section D

*  Ingress
*  Egress
*  Protest
*  Celebration

Design Training for Crowd Managers – Section E

*  1/250 NFPA ratio
*  Who are Crowd Managers* 
*  IAAM Crowd Assembly Facilitator (CAF)

The Nine Training Components

*  Training
*  Assist guests
*  Implement facility/event policies and procedures
*  Risk management
*  Crowd dynamics management
*  Knowledge of event and facilities
*  Conflict identification & mitigation
*  Perform communication function
*  Major emergency response

Example – Crowd Dynamics Management

*  Adjust to crowd demographics
*  Anticipate crowd activities and behavior
*  Maintain the usability of means of egress
*  Make guests aware of their responsibilities
*  Observe crowd for potential problems
*  Monitor flow of crowd for duration of event
*  Recognize potential crowd crush
*  Report potential crowd problems to supervisor
*  Identify changing crowd behavior and demeanor

Training Topics and Levels

Crowd Assembly Facilitators – Level I

A. Classroom Orientation & Training Components

*  Alcohol Management
*  Crowd Management and crowd control
*  Event planning
*  Crowd assembly facilitator
*  Disabled guest sensitivity
*  Facility policy & procedures
*  Rules and regulations governing use of the property
*  Ticketing policy & scalping laws
*  Report writing
*  Uniform, communication and equipment procedures and care 
*  Legal powers
*  Emergency evacuation procedures
*  Conflict mitigation and resolution
*  Day of event cancellation procedures
*  Medical services
*  Personal inquiries or illness procedures
*  Employee parking, identification, facility access and restrictions
*  Facilities Mission

B. Initial On-the-Job Process

*  Event briefing
*  Introductory
*  Post Assignment
*  Personal break procedures
*  Facility layout
*  Communications & Equipment
*  Emergency procedures

C. In-Service Training

*  Departmental training
*  Day of event evacuation drills
*  Seasonal kick-off conference
*  Special sessions

Crowd Assembly Facilitator Supervisor – Level II

A. Classroom Course

*  Supervisor's role
*  Risk management
*  Fire safety & equipment operations
*  Bomb threat procedures
*  CPR
*  Crowd dynamics
*  Payroll and time entry procedures
*  Courtroom procedures
*  Customer satisfaction program (If you have one)
*  Case studies
*  Duty of Care 

B. Initial On-the-Job Training

*  Event operations and crowd management
*  Facility survey
*  Supervisors briefing
*  Equipment assignment
*  Employee roster
*  Facility inspection
*  Facility, Event and Staff Readiness

Facility/Event use Policies and Procedure – Section F

*  Facility
*  Employee
*  Guests
*  Tenant

Federal, State and Local Ordinances and NFPA 101
*  Occupancy Loads for your Facility
*  Flow Rate
*  Safety Compliance
*  Inspection Requirements

Action Plan – Section G

1. Establish a Crowd Management Committee
2. Evaluations
*  Conduct Life Safety Evaluations at annually or earlier if you make
    changes to your facility or procedures
*  Conduct a "Best Practice" Security Analysis (Levels and Protocols)

Summary of Objective:

*  Our objective for this session was to provide "structure" to 
   Crowd Management Planning for the protection of life and property

Section A – Risk Management

Section B – Four Elements of shaping Crowd Behavior

Section C – Eight Steps to Event Planning

Section D – The Four Critical Periods for Injures and Death

Section E – Components and levels of training for Crowd 

Section F - Facility/Event use Policies and Procedure

Section G – Action Plan

11/02 - Dr. Gerhard Feltl, Universität Salzburg